Bougie aided video assisted intubation through King Laryngeal Tube

31 ott

If you have a patient with a King LT in place and want to intubate him use the Bougie and the videolaryngoscope. It works perfectly.

Here is the video tutorial.

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How a perfect ALS can kill: Pulseles Electric Activity a novel approach in medical cardiac arrest.

27 ott

HEMS arrives on a patients where ground medical service is conducting a perfect ALS.

The 50 years old pt is in PEA cardiac arrest (CA) (sinus bradycardia narrow QRS) airway secured with an 8 ET. The pt was still pulseless (double checked) after almost 20 min of CA, 6 mg of epi already administered and good quality chest compression was ongoing. EtCO2 was 35 (!!!!) even when chest compression were stopped for the pulse check(!!!).

Still no palpable pulse. At this point a 12 lead EKG was performed (against alla the ALS dogmas) with the patient still pulseless and the chest compressions were conseguently suspended (other ALS eresia) while placing the precordial leads and acquiring the EKG.

EKG result: Sinus Rithm 50 bpm. Inf+dx STEMI with reciprocal changes in lateral leads.

S…t she is alive!!! This is not PEA but profound cardiogenic shock.

 

Pulseles Electric Activity a novel approach in medical cardiac arrest

When classical ALS algorithm comes to non defib rithm says that asystole and PEA are the same and have to be equally treated.

There is not such a clinical and therapeutic mistake.

Cardiac stand still and contractile cardiac activity without a palpable central pulse are totally different issues.Pulseless electric activity in the majority of cases is more like a profound state of shock than an asystole, and like this has to be treated.

But let’s make just a step backword.

First cosideration is on the identification of pulseless patients.

At the moment official guidelines consider a pulseless patient based on the palpation of carotid pulse. ERC BLS 2010 official guidelines about carotid pulse palpation says: “Checking the carotid pulse (or any other pulse) is an inaccurate method of confirming the presence or absence of circulation, both for lay rescuers and for professionals” so is no long recommended.

So why if is no recommended for BLS is used in ALS guidelines to recognize pulseless patients and to treat them as an asystolic one? Is our finger a reliable instrument to decide beetwen life and death? Even the BLS guidelines give us the answer: NO.

Second consideration is the research of the underlyng causes of PEA.

The H’s and T’s classification is an etiologic definition and not a clinical one and is often impossible to use in emergency settings cause of the lack of clinicla informations.

Norman and Desbiensin their 2008 article Simplifying the diagnosis and management of pulseless electrical activity in adults: A qualitative review proposed a new classification based on a more clinical concept that is somehow useful for the emergency clinicians.

3 and 3 rule, even if still not validate, seems more helpful for clinicians working on the field or at least for quick use in emergency situation. On plus give us a guide for tretment according on patophisiologic origin of PEA.

3+3+3 rule

 

 

More recently Littmann, Bustin and Haley in the 2013 article “A Simplified and Structured Teaching Tool for the Evaluation and Management of Pulseless Electrical Activity” use EKG findings to guide the diagnosys of cause of PEA and to treat it. On the base of QRS duration they identify a possible origin, mechanical or metabolic, and accordingly propose the specific treatment.

PEA evaluation algo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PEA evaluation algo1PEA evaluation algo2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The introduction of point of care echo and EtCO2 in ED and on the field put a new brick in definition, diagnosys and treatment of PEA.

Ultrasonography give us the chance to expolore, confirming or excluding, most of the mechanical causes of PEA and EtCO2 is a more reliable indicator of perfusion than the subjective pulse palpation.

Regarding the tretment options, there are still no evidences in favour or against epinephrine administation and chest compression utility in patients pulseless with electric activity and no cardiac standstill.

The end of clinical case

After performing 12 leads EKG the patients was loaded on the helicopter and directed to the cat lab where the patients arrived still pulseless but with EtCO2 38. The angio, performed after an echo showing weak heart contractility with inferior wall ipokinesia, confirmed critical occlusion of the dx coronary artery. A medicated STENT was placed with good TIMI flow result.

The patient regained consciouness a couple of hours later, and was dismissed from the hospital afer 15 days with CPC 1 and 45% EF.

In this case the strict observance of ALS protocol would have conducted the medical team to continue CPR, despite the presence of a organized rythm, due to the absence of a palpable central pulse. Epinephrine would have been regularry administered (at CA doses) and chest compressions performed.

The decision to load and go to the PCI center gave the patient the chance to treat the underlyng cause of CA.

Not the same thing can be said about the ALS protocol.

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References:

Progressi nel soccorso extraospedaliero: utilizzo del VAR in emergenza urgenza extraospedaliera

24 ott

On line le slide della mia presentazione al congresso nazionale SIS 118 2014 in svolgimento a Santa Margherita Ligure

 

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2014 NICE Guidelines. Acute heart failure: diagnosing and managing acute heart failure in adults

18 ott

L’uscita di nuove linee guida è sempre un’occasione importante per chi ogni giorno si prende cura di pazienti critici in regime di emergenza-urgenza.

Quando poi l’argomento di cui trattano è importante, e per alcuni aspetti anche controverso, fa ancora più piacere l’uscita di un documento di consenso che permette di avere un riferimento affidabile per la pratica clinica giornaliera.

D’altra parte per i professionisti sanitari le linee guida non devono essere una gabbia professionale, bensì il valore aggiunto che guida le scelte cliniche ma la cui interpretazione critica prelude anche a scelte diverse, ma conseapevoli, da quele indicate.

Le nuove linee guida NICE (National Institute for Healthcare and Ecellence) sulla diagnosi e cura dello scompenso cardiaco acuto (2014 Acute heart failure NICE Full text Guidelines) pongono da questo punto di vista alcuni spunti interessanti quando si tratta di indicazioni per il trattamento iniziale.

Avevamo già trattato in un precedente post il trattamento dell’edema polmonare acuto affrontando le evidenze attuali ed i retaggi culturali che ancora persistono nel suo trattamento.

Vediamo se queste linee guida accolgono o meno i cambiamenti culturali che le nuove evidenze ci propongono.

1.3 Initial pharmacological treatment
1.3.2 Do not routinely offer opiates to people with acute heart failure.
 
Assolutamente d’accordo che il trattamento con oppiacei (se non per aumentare la compliance nel paziente in NIV) è inutile ed a volte dannoso. La somministrazione sistematica di Morfina quindi dovrebbe essere eliminata dall’algoritmo sulla gestione dello scompenso acuto di cuore.
References:
 
1.3.3 Offer intravenous diuretic therapy to people with acute heart failure. Starttreatment using either a bolus or infusion strategy.
 
Ci aspettavamo una scelta più coraggiosa e moderna a questo proposito da parte degli autori. La netta distinzione in termini fisiopatologici ha oramai evidenziato come molti delle presentazioni acute più drammatiche dello scompenso cardiaco non sono assolutamente determinate dal meccanismo del “volume overload” ma piuttosto sul “fluid shift”. Al contrario le presentazioni dovute ad un sovraccarico di volume sono di genesi più refratta nel tempo e quindi con sintomi meno drammatici, e molto spesso si giovano di un trattamento a lungo termine (anche con diuretici) e non sicuramente d’urgenza.
L’utilizzo di diuretici in emergenza per il paziente con scompenso cardiaco ha una utilità molto limitata, è potenzialmente  dannoso e dovrebbe essere riservato solo ad un selezionato selezionato gruppo di pazienti in una fase successiva della del trattamento.
References:
1.3.7 Do not routinely offer nitrates to people with acute heart failure.
1.3.8 If intravenous nitrates are used in specific circumstances, such as for people with concomitant myocardial ischaemia, severe hypertension or regurgitant aortic or mitral valve disease, monitor blood pressure closely in a setting where at least level
2 care can be provided.
 
La pratica clinica quotidiana, specie dopo l’avvento della NIV, ci conferma che l’utilizzo dei nitrati (specie in infusione continua) ha assunto un ruolo ed una priorità secondaria rispetto al trattamento non farmacologico, ma relegare il loro uso solo ad alcune situazioni particolari sembra inutilmente riduttivo per una terapia che presenta molti benefici in questa condizione patologica (elencati nella tabella seguente)
 
Benefits of Nitrate Therapy in Heart Failure

S-nitrosylation of effector proteins (8,13)
 Activates ryanodine receptors to improve myocardial contractility
 Regulates endothelial function
 Inhibits smooth muscle hyperplasia
 Regulates blood flow with changes in tissue oxygen tension matching flow to demand
 Protects myocytes by preventing oxidative damage
 Scavenges superoxide anions
 Regulates energy metabolism
 Protects cells from apoptosis
Guanylyl cyclase activation (8,17)
 Promotes venous and arterial smooth muscle relaxation decreasing preload and afterload
 Inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting platelet adhesion to vascular endothelium
 Has anti-inflammatory effects by preventing leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium
 Has antiapoptotic effects
 Has antiremodeling effects
Hemodynamic conditions (12,18,19)
 Decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
 Decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure
 Decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular afterload
 Decreased systemic vascular resistance and left ventricular afterload
 Increased venous capacitance
 Decreased right atrial pressure
 Decreases myocardial oxygen demand
Divya Gupta, MD; Vasiliki V. Georgiopoulou, MD; Andreas P. Kalogeropoulos, MD Nitrate Therapy for Heart FailureBenefits and Strategies to Overcome Tolerance JCHF. 2013;1(3):183-191. doi:10.1016/j.jchf.2013.03.003
La somministrazione di Nitrati rimane quindi  (considerando anche i contesti in cui la NIV no è disponibile) un’utile opzione nel trattamento farmacologico dello scompenos cardiaco
1.4 Initial non-pharmacological treatment
1.4.1Do not routinely use non-invasive ventilation (continuous positive airways pressure [CPAP] or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation [NIPPV]) in people with acute heart failure and cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.
1.4.2 If a person has cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with severe dyspnoea and acidaemia consider starting non-invasive ventilation without delay at acute presentation or as an adjunct to medical therapy if the person’s condition has failed to respond
1.4.3 Consider invasive ventilation in people with acute heart failure that, despite treatment, is leading to or is complicated by:
respiratory failure or reduced consciousness or physical exhaustion
 
L’emergenza preospedaliera ha oramai adottato in modo stabile l’utilizzo della ventilazione non invasiva per il trattamento dello scompenso cardiaco. Le linee guida NICE raccomandano il suo utilizzo solo per pazienti che presentano “cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with severe dyspnoea and acidaemia“.
Mentre il criterio clinico sembra molto generico (manca infatti un riferimento ai parametri clinici per definire la dispnea grave, e mancano tutti i criteri di esclusione) risulta per la maggior parte delle nostre realtà territoriali non utilizzabile il parametro strumentale dell’acidemia.
La NIV è attualemnte uno dei cardini fondamentali della terapia non farmacologica dello scompenso cardiaco e il suo utilizzo dovrebbe essere implementato fin dalle prime fasi del soccorso.
References:
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Queste sono solo alcune alcune considerazioni.  Per approfondire l’argomento, potete comunque leggere

2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

8 ott

2014 AHA:ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes were published on September 23.

The new terminology, from Non STE Miocardial Infarction to Non STE Acute coronary Syndromes, establishes a  pathophysiological continuum between unstable angina and Non STE Acute coronary Syndromes, and make those two identities indistinguishable and considered together in this 2014 Guideline.

The need of High Sensitive Troponin and the importance of risk stratification are just few of the many changes made in this 2014 update

You con find this and all the newst guidelines on MEDEST Guidelines section

Sono state pubblicate il 23 di Settembre le 2014 AHA:ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

Trovate queste e tutte le nuove linee guida su MEDEST nella sezione dedicata

Linee Guida

References:

2014 AHA:ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

New Non-ST-Elevation ACS Guidelines: New Title, New Approach

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2014年第一届潇湘急诊重症与呼吸治疗国际论坛. 2014 Xiao Xiang International Forum on Emergency and Critical Care Medicine.

1 ott

From 23 to 25 of September at Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital in Changsha (People’s Republic of China) was held the Xiao Xiang International Forum on Emergency and Critical Care Medicine and Reapiratory Therapy.

Many speakers from differents part of Asia and US talked about different and interesting topics. I was honored to be part of this group.

I want to thank my friend and colleague Zhang Yi Xiong for the great opportunity he gave me. I also thank him for the wonderful human experience I had meeting all the chinese colleagues who work in Emergency Depatment of  Provincial People’s Hospital.

Here is my presentation

You can also watch the presentation on line at the link below

http://prezi.com/x41ftjbiv17b/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

Clik the links below to download the pdf and ppt version of the presentation

Emerging Trends in Prehospital Emergency Medicine.pdf

Emerging Trends in Prehospital Emergency Medicine.ppt

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Morphine and antiplatelet therapies in acute myocardial infarction: a possible interaction

20 set

We publish this contribute from Dott. Guido Parodi.

Guido is a good friend of MEDEST and an exceptional interventional cardiologist working at Careggi Hospital in Florence.

The passion for medical research made Guido one of the lead investigators in many studies about antiplatelets therapies in acute coronary syndromes.

His enthusiastic way to work and to talk about the things he does is contagious. So we had this wonderful connection from the first time we met many years ago.

In this post he talks about a brilliant intuition he had, on the possible drug-to-drug interaction between morphine and antiplatelets agents.

So let’s go to the post.

Introduction

Antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment in patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome, including STEMI. Currently, new strategies are under investigation to improve antithrombotic treatment in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Prasugrel and Ticagrelor, the newer, potent, fast and effective platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, are recommended for STEMI patients in the European Guidelines (1) with the highest level of recommendation (I) and evidence (A).

Drug-to-drug interaction: RAPID and ATLANTIC study

In patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI a significant number of drugs are usually administered, thereby raising the potential risk for drug-to-drug interaction. In a recent small randomized study aimed to investigate the onset time of the novel P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (i.e., prasugrel and ticagrelor) in STEMI, a delayed antiplatelet effect due to morphine use in the first hours of STEMI has been hypothesized (2). This study showed that residual platelet reactivity soon after a loading dose of prasugrel and ticagrelor in patients with STEMI is higher than that reported for healthy volunteers or subjects with stable coronary artery disease and the majority of PPCI procedures with stent implantation are performed without proper platelet inhibition. A several hours vulnerable window of suboptimal antithrombotic therapy exists, in which STEMI patients are at high risk of thrombotic events, including stent thrombosis. Moreover, in this study morphine use resulted to be associated with a delayed activity of the new oral antiplatelet agents. There may be a biologically plausible cause-effect-relation in this association, given that morphine inhibits gastric emptying, thereby delaying absorption and possibly resulting in decreased peak plasma levels of orally administered drugs. Recently, an international multicentre randomized study, the ATLANTIC trial (3), showed that the pre-hospital administration of the potent platelet P2Y12-receptor antagonist ticagrelor shortly before PPCI in patients with STEMI appeared to be safe but did not improve reperfusion of the culprit artery. Interestingly, the ATLANTIC trial showed that the primary end point of ST-segment resolution was significantly improved with pre-hospital administration of ticagrelor in patients not receiving morphine (P = 0.005) for interaction supporting the hypothesis of a drug-to-drug interaction between morphine and oral antiplatelet agents.

Bottom line

Given the key importance of platelet inhibition in patients treated by PPCI for STEMI and the absence of data that may support a potential clinical benefit of morphine in patients with acute myocardial infarction, more caution should be used regarding morphine administration in STEMI patients, and a restricted morphine use seems to be reasonably recommended.
Courtesely from Dott. Guido Parodi

Courtesely from Dott. Guido Parodi

References

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Clinical videos in emergency medicine.

11 set

Did you ever shooted any clinical video?

Do you want to share it with our followers.

Send the video (or the link) at:

medest118@gmail.com

You can add a storyboard or a file (doc, ppt, keynote etc) that explains the clinical points illustrated in the video.

If the topic is of common interest it will appear on MEDEST.

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Settaggio iniziale del ventilatore polmonare.

27 ago

Uno degli skill importanti per la gestione del paziente critico in emergenza è il settaggio e la gestione del ventilatore polmonare.

La scelta della modalità di ventilazione ed il settaggio consapevole dei parametri ventilatori spesso scoraggia l’uso di uno strumento fondamentale, per chi fin dalla fase preospedaliera deve gestire il malato critico che necessita di assistenza ventilatoria.

La familiarità con concetti base, ma non per questo scontati, di fisiopatologia polmonare, ma anche un piano operativo predefinito da applicare ed adattare volta per volta alle varie situazioni cliniche, sono di basilare importanza per il settaggio in emergenza del ventilatore.

Recenti concetti come la Lung Protective Ventialtion, hanno inoltre reso necessaria una rivoluzione critica di quelli che erano i vecchi cardini della ventialzione meccanica.

Sono liberamente disponibili in rete risorse preziose che illustrano in modo chiaro ed autorevole questi nuovi concetti.

Mechanical Ventilation Protocol Summary

Sono inoltre disponibili alcuni simulatori e tutorial molto utili per poter interagire e settare in modo virtuale, ma anche realistico, il ventilatore polmonare e comprendere la ventilazione polmonare.

Questo modulo che presentiamo di seguito fa parte del corso Prehospital Airway Management (PHAM) e spero sia utile per la comprensione dei settaggi di base per tutti coloro che non hanno una pratica quotidiana con il ventilatore ma che necessitano di usarlo in emergenza sia fuori che dentro l’ospedale.

Settaggio di base del ventilatore polmonare

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Why the VideoLarygoscopy don’t gonna kill the DirectLaryngoscopy (at least in the near future)

17 ago

A novel publication goes to enrich the long-living debate on direct laryngoscopy (DL) vs video laryngoscopy (VL) efficacy in emergency intubation.

The recent article, pubblished on JEMS and titled  “Deploying the Video Laryngoscope into a Ground EMS System” ,compares the success rate beetwen DL vs VL in a ground EMS Service. The device used was the King Vision with channeled blade. The partecipants had a prior training on the divide, consisting in didactic orientation and practical skills on manikins.

The result of the study shown that “Within the first 100 days of the study, the video laryngoscope utilizing the channeled blade has shown to be at least as effective as DL in relation to first-attempt success” and considering that “the mean experience in our group with DL is nine years, yet the success rate remains unacceptable” “It’s time to consider transition from a skill that’s difficult to obtain and maintain to one that appears to have a quicker learning curve and will likely result in decreased episodes of multiple attempts at intubation and associated complications.”

So is direct laryngoscopy dead?( Or will be so in a few years)

Laryndo dead

Here are some considerations

There are some fundamental differences in  VL tecnique respect the DL tecnique, that makes the DL more intuitive to pass the tube trough the cords.

We have basically 3 main axis in the airways

3axys

When we manage the airways we first put the head in “sniffing position” aligning the pharyngeal axis with the laryngeal one

Sniffing position

Then we use the laryngoscope to align the mouth axis having so a direct view of the cords. This view coincide with the way to pass the tube, making this step intitive and easy.

DL view

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When using the videolaryngoscope we take our eyes right in front of the larynx, having a perfect “video” view of the vocal cords, but also minimally modifying the axis of the mouth.

Visione in videolaringoscopia

For this reason passing the OTT is not straight forward, so we need the stylet, the Bougie/Froban or the external glottic maneuvers, to facilitate the intubation.

tubo stylet

Bougie

This difference in tecnique makes the VL not so intuitive  due to the contrast between the perfect laryngeal view and the not  intuitive passage of the tube trough the cords.

In fact the available evidences almost accordingly demonstrate an equivalent success first pass rate beetwen traditional laryngoscope an video but a prolonged intubation time in VL groups.

As the previously cited article demonstrate the learning curve for VL is short and easy to perform, and this make this tecnique surely suitable for emergency intubation.

But for emergency professionals well trained and familiar with DL I think this has to be the first choice approach when managing an emergent airway.

Emergency field is not the place to make trianing or experience with novel devices or drugs.

The still not widely availability of video-laryngoscope makes this device a perfect alternative in all the casess when is not possible to obtain a good laryngela view with DL, but still not the gold standard tecnique.

In the future the increasingly diffusion of videoleryngoscopes (due mostly to more affordable prices), will chenge the airway management scenario. Novel emergency medicine operators will grown up parallel experience wid DL and VL so the latter will be more suitable as first choice device.

Bottom line

Wich way you prefer to go home?

The quickest and the shorter one for sure!

Do you use the GPS to go home?

Agree, me neither!

And when you use it?

lost

Right! When you are lost!

So that’s why Direct Laryngoscope il still my Plan A

My straight way home!

straight road

Prehospital Airway Management Action Plan

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