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2016 NICE Major Trauma Guidelines. The pre-hospital recommendations.

21 Feb

NICE released the 2016 Major trauma Guidelines.

Many interesting recommendations where made for pre-hospital and in hospital providers about several topics

  • Airway management

  • Chest trauma

  • Haemorrage control

  • Circulatory access

  • Volume resuscitation

  • Fluid replacement

  • Pain management

  • Documentation

  • Training

Here is the Excerpt regarding the pre-hospital settings

Download the full guidelines for in-hospital recommendations and full description of Guidelines process and rationale behind every single recommendation

Download the full Guidelines at:

Major trauma: assessment and initial management

NICE guidelines [NG39] Published date: February 2016



The pregnant patient

30 Gen

The management of a pregnant women has been always a challenge for physicians.

The different physiology of pregnancy, makes clinical choices and treatment different than in usual adult patient, and needs attentions and practice that override standard care.

In emergency medicine, where standards and protocols are a way to think and to act, a change in routine care, together with the time dependency of the decision making process, makes the pregnant patient an effective challenge.

So here is the need of specific guidelines focused on pregnant patient for specific clinical emergency situations.

In this post we discuss two guidelines about the management of a pregnant trauma patient and cardiac arrest in a pregnant women, with an eye of regard on the aspects of the recommendations for prehospital care.

Guidelines for the Management of a Pregnant Trauma Patient (Open Access)

Approved by Executive and Board of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

J Obstet Gynaecol Can June 2015;37(6):553–571

  • Every female of reproductive age with significant injuries should be considered pregnant until proven otherwise by a definitive pregnancy test or ultrasound scan. (III-C)
  • A nasogastric tube should be inserted in a semiconscious or unconscious injured pregnant woman to prevent aspiration of acidic gastric content.(III-C)
  • Oxygen supplementation should be given to maintain maternal oxygen saturation >95% to ensure adequate fetal oxygenation. (II-1B)
  • If needed, a thoracostomy tube should be inserted in an injured pregnant woman 1 or 2 intercostal spaces higher than usual. (III-C)
  • Because of their adverse effect on uteroplacental perfusion, vasopressors in pregnant women should be used only for intractable hypotension that is unresponsive to fluid resuscitation. (II-3B)
  • After mid-pregnancy, the gravid uterus should be moved off the inferior vena cava to increase venous return and cardiac output in the acutely injured pregnant woman. This may be achieved by manual displacement (Lateral Uterus Displacement L.U.D.) of the uterus or left lateral tilt (obsolete n.d.r). Care should be taken to secure the spinal cord (if indicated n.d.r.) when using left lateral tilt. (II-1B)
Transfer to health care facility
  • Transfer or transport to a maternity facility (triage of a labour and delivery unit) is advocated when injuries are neither life nor limb threatening and the fetus is viable (≥ 23 weeks), and to the emergency room when the fetus is under 23 weeks’ gestational age or considered to be non-viable. When the injury is major, the patient should be transferred or transported to the trauma unit or emergency room, regardless of gestational age. (III-B)
Perimortem Caesarean section
  • A Caesarean section should be performed for viable pregnancies (≥ 23 weeks) no later than 4 minutes (when possible) following maternal cardiac arrest to aid with maternal resuscitation and fetal salvage. (III-B)

Take home points on modifications of assessment of trauma patients in presence (or suspect) of pregnancy

  1. When indicated a thoracostomy tube should be inserted 1 or 2 intercostal spaces upper than usual.

  2. Vasopressors has to be avoided in pregnancy.

  3. Perform L.U.D (Lateral Uterus Displacement) to relieve Inferior Vena Cava compression.

  4. Transport the severely injuried pregnant patient to an hospital with maternal facility if fetus is viable (≥ 23 weeks).

Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (Open Access)

Circulation. 2015;132:00-00. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000300
Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy1
Chest Compressions in Pregnancy
  • There is no literature examining the use of mechanical chest compressions in pregnancy, and this is not advised at this time
  • Continuous manual LUD (left uterus dispalcement) should be performed on all pregnant women who are in cardiac arrest in which the uterus is palpated at or above the umbilicus to relieve aortocaval compression during resuscitation (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
  • If the uterus is difficult to assess (eg, in the morbidly obese), attempts should be made to perform manual LUD if technically feasible (Class IIb; Level ofEvidence C)
  • Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy
Transporting Pregnant Women During Chest Compressions
  • Because an immediate cesarean delivery may be the best way to optimize the condition of the mother and fetus, this operation should optimally occur at the site of the arrest. A pregnant
    patient with in-hospital cardiac arrest should not be transported for cesarean delivery. Management should occur at the site of the arrest (Class I; Level of Evidence C). Transport to a facility that can perform a cesarean delivery may be required when indicated (eg, for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or cardiac arrest that occurs in a hospital not capable of cesarean delivery)
Defibrillation Issues During Pregnancy
  • The same currently recommended defibrillation protocol should be used in the pregnant patient as in the nonpregnant patient. There is no modification of the recommended application of electric shock during pregnancy (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support
Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy 3
Breathing and Airway Management in Pregnancy
Management of Hypoxia
  • Hypoxemia should always be considered as a cause of cardiac arrest. Oxygen reserves are lower and the metabolic demands are higher in the pregnant patient compared with the nonpregnant patient; thus, early ventilatory support may be necessary (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
  • Endotracheal intubation should be performed by an experienced laryngoscopist (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
  • Cricoid pressure is not routinely recommended (Class III; Level of Evidence C).
  • Continuous waveform capnography, in addition to clinical assessment, is recommended as the most reliable method of confirming and monitoring correct placement of the ETT (Class I; Level of Evidence C) and is reasonable to consider in intubated patients to monitor CPR quality, to optimize chest compressions, and to detect ROSC (Class IIb; Level of Evidence C). Findings consistent with adequate chest compressions or ROSC include a rising Petco2 level or levels >10 mm Hg (Class IIa; Level of Evidence C).
  • Interruptions in chest compressions should be minimized during advanced airway placement (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
Arrhythmia-Specific Therapy During Cardiac Arrest
  • No medication should be withheld because of concerns about fetal teratogenicity (Class IIb; Level of Evidence C).
  • Physiological changes in pregnancy may affect the pharmacology of medications, but there is no scientific evidence to guide a change in current recommendations. Therefore, the usual drugs and doses are recommended during ACLS (Class IIb; Level of Evidence C).
Epinephrine and vasopressine
  • Administering 1 mg epinephrine IV/IO every 3 to 5 minutes during adult cardiac arrest should be considered. In view of the effects of vasopressin on the uterus and because both agents are considered equivalent, epinephrine should be the preferred agent (Class IIb; Level of Evidence C).
Fetal Assessment During Cardiac Arrest
  • Fetal assessment should not be performed during resuscitation (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
Delivery durin cardiac arrest
  • During cardiac arrest, if the pregnant woman (with a fundus height at or above the umbilicus) has not achieved ROSC with usual resuscitation measures with manual uterine displacement, it is advisable to prepare to evacuate the uterus while resuscitation continues (Class I; Level of Evidence C)
  • PMCD (Peri Mortem Cesarean Delivery) should be strongly considered for every mother in whom ROSC has not been achieved after ≈4 minutes of resuscitative efforts (Class IIa; Level of Evidence C).
  • If maternal viability is not possible (through eitherfatal injury or prolonged pulselessness), the procedure should be started immediately; the team does
    not have to wait to begin the PMCD (Class I; Level of Evidence C).
  • Assisted vaginal delivery should be considered when the cervix is dilated and the fetal head is at an appropriately low station (Class IIb; Level ofEvidence C)

Take home points for resuscitation in trauma patient:

  1. The utilization of mechanical chest compressors is not recommended.

  2. Continuous LUD should be performed during resuscitation.

  3. No modification in energy level when electrical therapy is needed.

  4. No modification in timing and doses of ACLS drugs.

  5. Fetal assessment is not indicated during resuscitation.

  6. Peri Mortem Cesarean Delivery (PMCD) has to be performed without delay and at the site of cardiac arrest (no transport is indicated), after 4 minutes of ineffective resuscitation attempts.






ACEP policy: Out-of-Hospital Use of Analgesia and Sedation

22 Gen

ACEP states that ” The relief of suffering is among the most common reasons for requesting EMS assistance. Pain and agitation are common causes of this suffering and are commonly encountered by EMS. There is a gap between the need for patient analgesia and the willingness of EMS personnel to provide it. There is a variety of medications available for the relief of pain and agitation.”

So let’s make the point on prehospital analgesia and sedation according with this policy.

Out of hospital analgesia

  1. Fentanyl for his short duration and rapid onset, multiple administration route (IV, IM, IN, and IO),   haemodynamic stability is the ideal narcotic agent for out of hospital use.
  2. Do not withhold narcotics in patients with abdominal pain for the myth of confounding the surgical assessment and so clouding the final diagnosis.
  3. Ketamine (at low doses) for analgesia (alone or in combination with narcotics) is safe, effective and haemodynamically stable without provoking respiratory drive and gag reflex suppression
  4. Concern about Ketamine effect on (increasing) intracranial pressure is misplaced

Out of hospital sedation and chemical restraint 

  1. Midazolam due to his rapid onset, short duration and multiple administration route (IV, IM, IN, and IO) is the ideal benzodiazepine for out of hospital sedation.
  2. Benzodiazepines, especially when administered in multiple doses can cause respiratory drive depression: use full monitoring of the patient when using benzodiazepines (MEDEST suggest waveform capnography). Consider other agents as butyrophenones (MEDEST suggest Aloperidol, Droperidol)
  3. Ketamine (in dissociative dose) is the ideal agent for patients with excited delirium (still not recognised as medical disorder in Italy!!!!!) cause of his rapid onset, safe haemodynamic profile and leave intact respiratory drive and gag reflex.

For full free open access text of this policy go to:



Neonatal Resuscitation Guidilenes 2015 update

20 Dic

Even if neonatal cardiac arrest is not a common clinical scenario, it is a big concern for all the professionals involved in emergency medicine practice.

While on adult and pediatric cardiac arrest updated guidelines much (despite few key changes) was said or written, on neonatal part of the updated guidelines there is not much to read or to hear.

I think this particular aspect of cardipulmonary resuscitation worths a specific focus (see references for full free text of the guidelines).

So here is a brief summary of the key recommendations:

  • Usual care (remaining with the mother) is applicable to all term infants who are breathing or crying and have good tone.
  • Infants not meeting those criteria should be warmed (36.5o–37.5oC), dried, and stimulated. Suctioning should only be performed if is present airway obstruction is present or suspected .
  • Pressure ventilation by self-inflating bag, flow-inflating bag, or other ventilatory device, initially by room air, shoul be performed on labored or ineffective respirations or heart rate <100/min. after 60 seconds . Supplemental oxygen has to be started and targeted to preductal pulse oximetry norms.
  • Intubation is indicated only after ineffective or prolonged bag-mask ventilation, chest compressions, or congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
  • Laryngeal masks are an alternative to intubation for newborns at ≥34 weeks of gestation.
  • If despite effective positive pressure ventilation heart rates remains <60/min. chest compressions using the 2-thumb-encircling-hands technique has to be started at a 3:1 compressions/ventilation ratio.
  • Consider induced therapeutic hypothermia for infants born at >36 weeks of gestation with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
  • Termination of resuscitative efforts has to be considered if the 10-minute Apgar score is 0 associated with undetectable heart rate.
By Mario Rugna



  1. 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care- Free full text

NICE released Major Trauma Guidelines Draft.

8 Ago
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a Guidelines Draft on Major Trauma. The great thing about is that everyone can consult the draft and send suggestion (but only if you work for a stackholder organization) about the recommendations and scientific evidences contained.
Consult the documents at the links below:

Here are some highlights with a particular regard to pre-hospital environment recommendations:

Airway management

RSI and orotracheal intubation is the preferred method to manage airways (when compromised) in a trauma patient.
In prehospital setting RSI and OTI has to be performed on scene in less than 30 min from the initial call. Backup plan is SGA (in patients with reduced level of consciousness and no glottic reflexes) or basic airways maneuver plus adjuncts (patients with GAG reflexes still present), and transfer to Trauma Center (within 60 min) to manage airways. If Trauma Center is more than 60 minutes away, reach local hospital to perform RSI and than transfer the patient.

“The GDG had a strong belief that RSI of anaesthesia and intubation delivered by a competent person is the gold standard of care when maintaining the airway of both adults and children and made a recommendation for RSI of anaesthesia and
intubation accordingly.”

“The GDG suggested that the second best device for airway management was the supraglottic device. This device provides less protection than RSI of anaesthesia and intubation against aspiration; however this device provides greater protection than
basic airway adjuncts, and can be administered safely by in the pre-hospital environment by paramedics or physicians staff.”

“Supraglottic devices can only be used in patients without airway reflexes to avoid stimulating vomiting or laryngospasm,, and
are therefore only appropriate for use in patients with a reduced level of consciousness.”

“For patients with airway reflexes, where a supraglottic device cannot be used, the GDG recommended the use of basic airway manoeuvres and adjuncts until such time as RSI of anaesthesia and intubation is available.”

“The GDG therefore concluded that where possible, RSI should be delivered at scene and within a timeframe than minimised
pre-hospital time. Pre-hospitals systems should develop to make this widely available. Where pre-hospital RSI is not possible within a 30-minute window, the GDG recommended transporting the patient with supraglottic or basic airway adjuncts to a MTC within 60 minutes, otherwise to a TU”

Pre-hospital Tension Pneumothorax

  • Closed pneumo
Perform chest decompression of a suspected tension pneumothorax only in haemodynamically unstable patients or in pts who have respiratory compromise.
Perform open thorachostomy to drain tension pneumothorax in haemodynamically unstable patients (preferred on simple needle decompression).
Simple open thorachostomy can be performed only in intubated (and positive pressure ventilated) patients. In all other cases insert a chest drain to prevent a sucking chest open wounds
  • Open pneumo
No more vented or 3-sided occlusive dressing in open (sucking) pneumothorax: use a simple occlusive dressing to treat an open pneumothorax in the pre-hospital setting

“The GDG limited the recommendation to intervene to people who are haemodynamically unstable or have severe respiratory compromise. The GDG agreed that people who have signs of a tension pneumothorax but are haemodynamically normal can wait until hospital for a more definitive diagnosis and possible decompression.”

“Needle decompression is a simpler technique to perform than insertion of a chest drain but is associated with a number of complications. These include the cannula blocking, the catheter not being long enough and therefore, not penetrating the
thoracic parietal pleura, or incorrect placement of the needle, all of which result in the decompression not being successful. The GDG agreed by consensus that open thoracostomy is more effective and stable than needle decompression.”

“An open thoracostomy can only be used on intubated patients. A surgical incision is made, blunt dissection is performed, and the pleura penetrated. The wound is then left open. This is a rapid way of decompressing a tension pneumothorax in a critically injured trauma patient who is intubated. The positive pressure ventilation prevents the thoracostomy wound from acting as an open, ‘sucking’, chest wound”

“The GDG agreed that given the lack of evidence, no recommendation could be made around whether an occlusive dressing for an open pneumothorax should be vented or three-sided. Additionally, the GDG accepted there was no evidence to make a
recommendation around supplementing the dressing with a chest drain in the prehospital setting.The GDG decided through expert consensus to recommend using a simple occlusive dressing to treat an open pneumothorax in the pre-hospital setting. The GDG emphasised the importance of a ‘simple’ dressing that provides an airtight seal that is fast and straightforward to apply. The priority should be transporting the patient to a hospital where a chest drain can be inserted.”

Haemorrhage control

First line intervention is direct pressure with simple dressing.
If direct pressure failed use tourniquets (no difference between mechanical or penumatic ones) as backup method. Is controversial when tourniquets has to be used (as first line) over direct pressure
Use Tranexamic acid in suspected haemorrahagic patients as soon as possible but never beyond 3 hrs from trauma

“In the absence of any evidence in favour of haemostatic dressings, the GDG did not believe that they offered any improvement over and above standard dressings with direct pressure.”

“Whereas, immediate haemorrhage control can be achieved by direct pressure, the decision of when direct pressure should be
used over tourniquets was considered controversial as the GDG tried to weigh up the risk and cost of placing a tourniquet on a person who did not require it compared with those that do.”

Vascular access

In adults use IV access as first line and IO as rescue technique if IV failed
In children, when difficult vascular access is suspected, use IO access as first line technique

Fluid resuscitation

In pre-hospital environment the target for volume titration has to be maintaining a palpable central pulse (femoral or carotid)
In pre-hospital, if blood products are not available, small boluses of crystalloids are the preferred fluid volume replacement.

“The GDG discussed the situation when a pre-hospital practitioner is treating a patient in profound haemorrhagic shock but does not have access to blood products. In this case small boluses of crystalloids would be appropriate.”

Pain control

IV Morphine is the first line recommended agent. Ketamine (at pain relief doses) the second option.
Caution is recommended when Morphine is administered in a haemodinamically unstable patient.
Intranasal administration is the recommended route of administration when IV is not available.

“Two studies compared IV morphine with IV fentanyl and found no difference between the interventions for pain relief and adverse side effects.”

(Many) Things that I Like about these guidelines

  1. The airway management approach! Totally agree on RSI and OTI as gold standard in trauma, and if performed, better be fast. The 30 min target is a quite fair indication but, as any other straight timing, depends on  the circumstances. The thing I appreciate is the idea of DO IT IN THE SHORTEST TIME POSSIBLE. Great. And if plan A (Ventilation+Oxygenation) fails? Plan B (Oxygenate) SGA and rush to TC, if close, or to any other trauma unit. And if for any reason placing a SGA is not possible? Use BVM and adjuncts and rush again. Love it!
  2. Thoracostomy better than needle decompression, both in prehospital and in hospital, for tension pneumothorax drainage. We are all aware of the bunch of studies indicating as needle decompression is inadequate in most cases, and all the FOAMED drums are rumbling on these frequencies. But till now none (first of all the Archaic Trauma Life Support)  officially stated this in a guideline (that I’m aware to, at least). So WELCOME expert consensus of NICE GDG!
  3. Simple occlusive dressing in open pneumo. Straight and simple.
  4. The choice for prehospital fluid replacement goes on crystalloids only cause blood products are not available, but in the text is highlighted as both crystalloids and colloids are detrimental on coagulation process (so they are banned in hospital setting). The future is blood products even in prehospital environment!

(Few) Things that I don’t like about these guidelines

  1. The choice of open simple thoracostomy just in intubated pts has to be more clearly highlighted. I suggest as an adjunct to main (yellow background) recommendation. And so as to be for thoracostomy plus chest drainage in non intubated pts.
  2. Why they just mention Morphine (as opioid) for pain control and don’t include fentanyl in the main recommendation, if in the text is clearly indicated as all the available evidences show no differences between the two drugs in terms of clinical effects and adverse events? I think Fentanyl due to its wide diffusion (with great satisfaction) worths a mention!

Draft closes for comments on 21 of September.


Community management of opioid overdose

6 Nov

World Health Organization relesead the 2014 guidelines for Community management of opioid overdose.

Reccomendation 1

Here are some highlights from the guidelines of particular relevance for emergency medicine

  • Formulation and dose of naloxone

Route of administration
The GDG recognizes that the IV route is appropriate and effective in medical settings
The capacity of the nasal mucosa to absorb liquids is limited, so if the intranasal route of administration is to be used, concentrated forms of naloxone should ideally be used.
The GDG has made this recommendation fully aware that the intranasal route is currently an off-label (non-licensed) route.
Affordability may dictate the preferred route in particular contexts
The choice of initial dose will depend on the formulation of naloxone to be used and the context.
In medical settings dose selection is not generally an issue as dose titration is standard practice. In non-medical settings dose titration is not so easily accomplished and higher initial doses may be desirable.
The context also dictates the total amount of naloxone made available to non-medical responders.
The initial dose should be 0.4mg–2mg, targeting recovery of breathing. In most cases 0.4–0.8 mg is an effective dose. It is important to provide sufficient naloxone to supplement the initial dose, as necessary.

Intranasal delivery may require a higher dose. It should be noted that the commonly used method of intranasal administration is to spray 1 ml of the 1 mg/ml formulation of naloxone into each nostril with an atomizerconnected to a syringe.

Where possible, efforts should be made to tailor the dose to avoid marked opioid withdrawal symptoms. The GDG notes that higher initial doses above 0.8 mg IM/IV/SC are more likely to precipitate significant withdrawal symptoms.

A more complicated situation arises where there has been an overdose of a combination of drugs. In this situation naloxone is still beneficial for reversing the opioid intoxication component of the overdose.


  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

In suspected opioid overdose, first responders should focus on airway management, assisting ventilation and
administering naloxone.
Because the key feature of opioid overdose is respiratory arrest, ventilation is a priority. While recognizing there are different protocols in different parts of the world, the GDG suggests the following steps in resuscitating an individual with suspected opioid overdose.
Apply vigorous stimulation, check and clear airway, and check respiration – look for chest rising and falling.
In the presence of vomit, seizures or irregular breathing, turn the patient on their side, and, if necessary, clear the airway of vomit.
In the absence of regular breathing provide rescue ventilation and administer naloxone.
If there are no signs of life, commence chest compressions.
Re-administer naloxone after two to three minutes if necessary
In all cases call for professional assistance.
Monitor the person until professional help arrives.
  • Post resuscitative care

After successful resuscitation following the administration of naloxone, the affected person should have their level of consciousness and breathing closely observed until they have fully recovered.
The definition of ‘fully recovered’ is a return to pre-overdose levels of consciousness two hours after the last dose of naloxone.
Ideally, observation should be performed by properly-trained professionals.
The period of observation needed to ensure full recovery is at least two hours, following overdose from short-acting opioids such as heroin. It may be longer where a longer acting opioid has been consumed.
If a person relapses into opioid overdose, further naloxone administration may be required.
The definition of ‘fully recovered’ is a return to pre-overdose levels of consciousness two hours after the last dose of naloxone

Download the full guidelines at




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