Paziente con iperglicemia? Vuoi sapere se ha una chetoacidosi diabetica? Usa il capnografo!

16 Giu


Troviamo un paziente diabetico e confuso. Facciamo subito uno stick glicemico. Ha 300 di glicemia! Perchè è confuso, ha una chetoacidosi diabetica o dobbiamo guardare altrove?

In un recente studio pubblicato sul West Journal of Emergency Medicine dal titolo “Predictive value of capnography for diagnosis in patient with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency depatment” gli autori hanno esaminato 181 pazienti con glicemia superiore a 250 mg/dl e sospetta chatoacidosi diabetica.

In 62 di essi la diagnosi di chetoacidosi diabetica veniva confermata dalla presenza di corpi chetonici nelle urine ed acidosi metabolica (pH<7.3  bicarbonati <15 meq/dL).

Hanno dimostrato che un valore della capnografia superiore a 24,5 aveva un valore predittivo negativo dela patologia con una sensibilità ed una specificità del 90%.

Nonostante sia difficile individuare un valore di cut-off specifico (in questo studio 24,5 ha dimstrato una buona sensiblità e specificità, ma altri studi individuano valori differenti), si può affermare con sicurezza che una capnografia normale nei pazienti diabetici con iperglicemia esclude la chetoacidosi diabetica.

Quindi la prossima volta che vi trovate di fronte ad un diabetico confuso ed iperglicemico e dovete indirizzare la diagnosi, occhio al capnografo.


Soleimanpour H et al. Predictive value of capnography for diagnosis in patient with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency department. West J Emerg Med 2013

Capnography useful in identifyng patients with DKA

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