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Chi siamo

1 Ott

MEDEST si occupa di medicina d’urgenza dal punto di vista dei professionisti che lavorano sul territorio, e non solo.

I post e tutti i contributi che vi troverete infatti si occupano di vari argomenti di medicina d’urgenza attingendo a tutte le fonti di letteratura nazionale ed internazionale disponibili.

Non abbiamo alcun conflitto d’interessi, non percepiamo compensi diretti o indiretti per le cose che scriviamo. Sappiate quindi che quello di buono (e di meno buono) che troverete in MEDEST è frutto solamente della buona fede di chi lo scrive (anche sbagliando).

Crediamo nella condivisione e nella libera circolazione dei contenuti. Tutto ciò che torverete e che scaricherete dal blog è assolutamente gratuito.

Le idee, sopratutto quelle buone, non hanno prezzo o copyright.

Tutti i commenti ed i contributi saranno valutati e se di interesse generale pubblicati.

Lo staff di MEDEST.
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Mario Rugna (autore)

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Sono un medico e lavoro al 118 di Firenze.

Dopo molti anni di giovanile peregrinare tra il Pronto Soccorso ed il territorio, la maturità mi ha portato a scegliere l’emergenza preospedaliera come mia unica passione.

Atttualmente mi divido tra il lavoro in Centrale Operativa, Automedica, Elisoccorso e la formazione del personale medico del 118 di Firenze.

Mi occupo inoltre della prova e dell’acquisizione dei nuovi device .

NB: non ho nessun conflitto d’interesse da dichiarare. Le opinioni espresse sul blog non riflettono in nessun modo le posizioni dell’Azienda per cui lavoro.

Scarica il mio curriculum vitae

Contattami.

To cool or not to cool. Possiamo fare finta di non vedere?

23 Nov

Audit ACR

I dati di questo trial appena pubblicato, hanno acceso il dibattito sull’utilità dell’ipotermia nell’arresto cardiaco, già dalla fase preospedaliera.

Vediamo il disegno dello studio. I pazienti (1359) venivano randomizzati fin dal ROSC preospedaliero in due gruppi; uno riceveva il trattamento standard mentre il secondo veniva sottoposto ad l’ipotermia (liquidi freddi per via parenterale). I pazienti di entrambi i gruppi venivano poi comunque “raffreddati” all’arrivo in DEA.

I risultati. Nessun beneficio viene dimostrato nei pazienti sottoposti ad ipotermia sia in termini di mortalità che di outcome neurologico. Veine anzi evidenziato un aumento delle recidive di ACR e di scompenso cardico congestizio nei pazienti sottoposti ad ipotermia.

La critica mossa agli auotri riguarda il non stretto controllo della temperatura ed il metodo di raffreddamento. Due litri di salina a 4° infatti somministrati per via endovenosa possono avere un impatto emodinamico significativo.

Allora tutta colpa dello studio condotto male?

Audit ACR

Ecco quindi questo studio  anch’esso dello stesso periodo, condotto in Europa ed in Australia su 950 pazienti.

Lo studio questa volta è molto rigoroso sul controllo della temperatura  e sulla selezione dei pazienti. Indaga quale target di temepratura  dimostri maggior beneficio nei pazienti vittima di ACR, se i classici 33° o 36°, indicati come ipotermia moderata.

I risultati. Anche questo studio non dimostra nessun beneficio derivato dall’applicazione di una ipotermia spinta su quella moderata. Un sensibile peggioramento veniva dimostrato solo nei pazienti ipertermici. Quindi indicazioni sicuramente sul controllo della temperatura per evitare l’ipertermia nei pazienti sopravvissuti da ACR ma ancora nessuna evidenza sul beneficio dell’ipotermia.

Possiamo ancora far finta di non vedere?

Possiamo ignorare che le indicazioni che riguardano l’uso dell’ipotermia, e su cui si basano le attuali linee guida, sono sostenute da studi datati e poco potenti?

Bottom line

Quello che questi studi devono stimolare è l’attenione massima sul “post-resuscitative care” del paziente rianimato da ACR.

Non finisce tutto dopo il ROSC, anzi! Il buon outcome comincia proprio dalla ripresa del circolo!

Massima attenzione va quindi posta sulla globalità trattamento post-rianimatorio:

  • Controllo della ventilazione assistita
    • Controllo delle pressioni
    • Controllo dei volumi
    • Paralisi
  • Evitare l’iperossia
    • Target di saturazione di O2 94-98%
  • Mantenere l’eucapnia
    • Target di EtCO2 35-40
  • Evitare l’ipertermia
    • TTM (Targeted Temperature Management)
  • Trattamento della causa sottostante
    • PTCA
  • Considerare la circolazione extracorporea
    • Pazienti con shock cardiogeno persistente post ROSC

Come e quanto raffreddare il paziente rianimato? Seguiamo con interesse il dibattito internazionale in attesa di nuovi, sicuramente necessari, trial che facciano più chiarezza sull’argomento.

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Let’s be clear! Not all trauma patients must be treated with spinal immobilization during prehospital resuscitation and transport.

9 Mar

ems-backboardsSpinal immobilization is performed in all trauma patients from the rescuers in EMS systems all over the world, regardless the mechanism of injury and the clinical signs.
This kind of approach is nowadays been rebutted from the recents evidences and the actual guidelines.
ACEP, in Jan 2015, released a policy statement entitled :”EMS Management of Patients with Potential Spinal Injury” clarifying the right indications, and contraindications, for spinal immobilization in prehospital setting.
The lack of evidence of beneficial use of devices such as spinal backboards, cervical collars etc… is in contrast with the demonstrated detrimental effects of such instruments: airway compromise, respiratory impairment, aspiration, tissue ischemia,increased intracranial pressure, and pain, consequent to spinal immobilization tools, can result in increased use of diagnostic imaging and mortality.

Already in 2009 a Cochrane review demonstrated the lack of evidences on use of spinal restriction strategies in trauma.

Recently the out of hospital validation of Nexus criteria and Canadian C-spine rules, strongly driven to a revisited approach to spinal immobilization.

So in 2013 American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Guidelines for the Management of Acute Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injurie”  and Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care “Pre-hospital Spinal Immobilisation: An Initial Consensus Statement” stated those changes.

Based on this statements:

  1. Spinal immobilization should not be used for patients with penetrating trauma without evidence of spinal injury.
  2. Spinal immobilization should be considered in all trauma patients with a cervical spine or spinal cord injury or with a mechanism of injury having the potential to cause cervical spinal injury.
  3. Spinal motion restriction should not be considered for patients with plausible blunt mechanism of injury and any of the following:
    • The patient is GCS 15 (normal lev el of alertness)
    • There is no posterior mid-line tenderness
    • There is no distracting injury (other painful injury)
    • There is no focal neurological signs and /or symptoms (e.g., numbness and/or motor weakness)
    • There is no anatomic deformity of the spine
    • There is no intoxication (alcohol or drugs, including iatrogenic)
  4. The long spinal board is an extrication device solely.
  5. Backboards should not be used as a therapeutic intervention or as a precautionary measure either inside or outside the hospital or for inter-facility transfers. For this purpose, a scoop stretch or vacuum mattress should be used.
  6. EMS providers ahs to be properly educated on assessing risk for spinal injury and neurologic assessment, as well as on performing patient movement in a manner that limits additional spinal movement in patients with potential spinal injury.

References

  1. 2015 ACEP Policy statements: EMS Management of Patients with Potential Spinal Injury
  2. Totten VY, Sugarman DB. Respiratory effects of spinal immobilization. Prehosp Emerg Care. Oct-Dec 1999;3(4):347-352.
  3. Cochrane Rewiev Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients
  4. Test performance of the individual NEXUS low-risk clinical screening criteria for cervical spine injury.
  5. The Out-of-Hospital Validation of the Canadian C-Spine Rule by Paramedics
  6. Evaluation of the Safety of C-Spine Clearance by Paramedics
  7. 2013 American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Guidelines for the Management of Acute Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injurie
  8. Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care “Pre-hospital Spinal Immobilisation: An Initial Consensus Statement”

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My favourite VL view to increase first pass intubation

8 Feb

A debate is ongoing among #FOAMED social media about increasing first passage rate in tracheal intubation and some difficulties when using VL.

At the beginning of my experience with VL I experienced some difficulties, but with a radical change in technical approach I reached a good security on first pass success.

Here are my consideration and I hope will be useful for anyone is starting using VL

 

There are some fundamental differences in VL technique respect to DL, that makes the DL more easy and intuitive to pass the tube trough the cords.

3axys

The 3 axys theory for airway management

“Sniffing position” align the pharyngeal axis with the laryngeal one

Sniffing position

Sniffing position

Perfoming Direct Laryngoscopy with the laryngoscope we align the mouth axis to have a direct view of the cords.

DL view

DL VIEW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This view coincide with the route for passing the tube, making this step intuitive and easy.

 

When using a Video Laryngoscope we take our eyes right in front of the larynx, having a perfect “video” view of the vocal cords, but also minimally modifying the axis of the mouth.

Visione in videolaringoscopia

VL VIEW

This difference makes the act of passing the tube not so easy and not so intuitive, cause of the contrast between the perfect video laryngeal view and the not easy passage of the tube trough the cords.

In those cases the stylet, the Bougie/Froban or the external glottic maneuvers, are useful to facilitate the video-intubation.

tubo stylet

Golf stick shape of the tube+stylet

But the first goal is to reach this view on the screen of the videolaryngoscope.

IMG_1278

I want to have the epiglottis right at the center of the screen and this comes prior of a good view of the larynx.

Epiglottoscopy is the key point of my management of the airways in general and when prforming VL in particular.

Having the epiglottis in central position on the screen allow to:

  • lower the glottic plane facilitating intubation
  • decrease  the force to apply on the airways minimizing traumatism and neck movement in case of trauma.
  • fits all the difficult airway situations because a poor view of the cords is what you are looking for!

If you agree, memorize my favorite view and reach for it when using a video device to mange the airways.

All comments are welcome so please let me know your thoughts.

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F.A.R. in E.M. (Focus Assessed Review in Emergency Medicine ) #3: Trauma

10 Gen
MEDEST F.A.RAnd here we are with the 3th episode of the F.A.R. series. If you accidentally lost the first two episodes you can find them here:
#1 Cardiac Arrest
#2 Airway Management
In this episode we’ll explore the best articles of 2014 about:

Trauma

Before approaching specific arguments about trauma here are some fundamental articles to read about new emerging concepts in trauma care. Those are the clinical and physiological bases to understand what is happening in the actual trauma management scene.

And now let’s go to specific area of interest:

  • Spine immobilization

Spine immobilization in trauma is changing.

After years of dogmatic approach to strict spine immobilization for all trauma patients regardless any other factor, is now pretty clear that not all the trauma patients benefits from this all or nothing way of thinking. MEDEST already faced the argument in previous posts (The Death of the Cervical Collar?) as also did some prehospital consensus guidelines (Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care Consensus Statements).

In 2014 many articles treated this topic in a critical and modern way of re-thinking spinal immobilization, in particular the widespread use of cervical collar. The lessons we learned is that:

  1. Widespread use of cervical collar in neck trauma has to be carefully evaluated (and even avoided) due to the low incidence of unstable spinal lesions.
  2. Routine use of cervical collar is of unclear benefit and supported by weak evidences. A new selective approach has to be implemented based on prehospital clearance protocols.

What is “revolution” in clinical practice? We don’t have the answer to this dilemma, but what is happening in fluid resuscitation for trauma patients seems likely to be revolutionary. Restrictive strategies and new blood products are the future for the treatment of trauma patients (read also Fluid resuscitation in bleeding trauma patient: are you aware of wich is the right fluid and the right strategy?).

But much more happened in 2014 about trauma….

Resuscitative throacotomy is now a reality not only “in” but even “out” of hospital, so read all about it

An evergreen topic is TBI but new concepts are arousing so read here the latest updates

New drugs and new protocols for airway and pain management: a rationale guide to choose the right drug for the right patient.

DISCLOSURE: MEDEST strongly encourage AWARNESS reading the propoused articles.
Abstracts are often misleading and articles potentially biased. Even this selection is not immune from potential bias (just human factors not commercial interests).
So download the full text and read it carefully to have a clear and complete opinion of the related topics.


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F.A.R. in E.M. (Focus Assessed Review in Emergency Medicine ) #2

5 Gen
MEDEST F.A.RThe second episode of this focus reviews will deeply assess a topic that is very “hot” for every emergency professional.
Before reading this episode give a look at the first of the series about the best of 2014 literature on  Cardiac Arrest
And now enjoy the very best of 2014 articles on:

Airway Management

Not all is CRASH! Especially when it comes to airway management. RSI is the gold standard when we talk about intubating a spontaneously breathin patient but DSI is becoming a classic. And is recommended by Scott Weingart and Seth Trueger, not properly two “new kids on the block”….
Caution! You are about to perform an invasive maneuver on a previously spontaneously breathing patient. So remember to carefully avoid desaturation and hyper-inflation!
This disclaimer should be written on the handle of every laryngoscope to remember two of the most frequent fault to avoid when managing the airways.
Always rewarded as a nightmare for the emergency professional, surgical airway is most of the time a real no through road for the patient. So here is a complete guide on how to approach in the best way such a difficult skill.
Does the aggressive management of the airways gets benefits on critically ill patients or a more conservative approach gives best results on clinical outcomes? Facts (few) and doubts (many) in this year literature.

 

DISCLOSURE: MEDEST strongly encourage AWARNESS reading the propoused articles.
Abstracts are often misleading and articles potentially biased. Even this selection is not immune from potential bias (just human factors not commercial interests).
So download the full text and read it carefully to have a clear and complete opinion of the related topics.


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F.A.R. in E.M. (Focus Assessed Review in Emergency Medicine ) #1

2 Gen
MEDEST F.A.RThis is the first (of a series) of literature reviews dedicated to a particular topic of Emergency Medicine clinical life.
We tried to give a deep look to all the articles that had a relevance for a particular argument in this year, and made some considerations regarding the emerged evidences . All the articles are full text end ready to be downloaded.
The first edition is focused on the “king argument” for an emergency medicine and critical care professional:

Cardiac Arrest

Chest compressions

This year the importance of chest compressions in CA was confirmed and even emphasized as one of the few (along with defibrillation) really wothy intervention to perform during CPR.

Mechanical Devices

The “black year” for mechanical devices saw 3 major trials finding no difference in outcome between mechanical and (good quality) manual chest compressions. Still remains the subjective (personal) impression that mechanical devices are of some utility for the human resources management and  transport during CPR.

Vasoactive (and other) drugs

Like (and perhaps more) than for mechanical devices, 2014 signed a really bad year for epinephrine.

Lack of evidence on his utility and emerging ones on detrimental effects, accompanied this “historical” drug through the year that preludes to new 2015 CA Guidelines. Will epinephrine still be there at the end of this 2015? Or new emerging trends on use of steroids and vasopressin will prevale at the end?

ECLS

And after interventions that are loosing evidence in the years, new future prospectives for the management of CA patients, comes from Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation that gives renewed hopes of better survival and good neurological outcome, despite initial difficulties and skepticism.

Outcome and prognostication

Therapeutic Hypothermia

New era for the post-resuscitative care! Less oxygen, lower tidal volume and last, but not least, less cooling. And, while this year will give us some answers about intra-arrest cooling, now we know that 33°C is equally effective as 36°C and is no longer recommended in post ROSC patients! Maybe….

Other

Hypotermia (accidental not therapeutic), highlights from ERC 2014 Congress and decision on non starting CPR: what changes and what remains in our daily practice.

DISCLOSURE: MEDEST strongly encourage AWARNESS reading the propoused articles.
Abstracts are often misleading and articles potentially biased. Even this selection is not immune from potential bias (just human factors not commercial interests).
So download the full text and read it carefully to have a clear and complete opinion of the related topics.

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MEDEST Review 30. One year in Review.

25 Dic

MEDEST-review

 

 

 

DISCLOSURE: MEDEST strongly encourage AWARNESS reading the propoused articles.
Abstracts are often misleading and articles potentially biased. Even this selection is not immune from potential bias (just human factors not commercial interests).
So download the full text and read it carefully to have a clear and complete opinion of the related topics.

The latest Review of the year is dedicated to a collection of the most important (for us) articles of this 2014.

This is MEDEST way to wish you all Merry Xmas.

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Enjoy the reading:

Cardiac Arrest

Chest compression

Mechanical Devices

Vasoactive drugs

ECLS

Outcome and prognostication

Therapeutic Hypothermia

Other

Trauma

Spine immobilization

Fluids and blood products

Other

Airway management

Sepsis

ACS

Stroke

Guidelines

Emergency Pharmacology

Mechanical Ventilation

Other clinical conditions

Non Clinical

 

 

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The “3 SIMPLE Rules”: an easy and accurate tool for recognizing VT

17 Dic
Following the discussion on ectopy and aberrancy (view Ectopy or aberrancy? Google Ecg+ community comments on a clinical case.)  Ken Grauer, EKG master and author of many EKG books, gave us the permission to share his “3 SIMPLE Rules” to recognize VT in a simple ad accurate way.
 
  • Rule #1 Is there extreme axis deviation during WCT

Extreme axis deviation is easy to recognize. The QRS complex will be entirely negative in either lead I or lead aVF. The presence of extreme axis deviation during a WCT rhythm is virtually diagnostic of VT.
  • Rule #2 Is lead V6 all (or almost all) negative?

IF ever the QRS in lead V6 is either all negative (or almost all negative)  then VT is highly likely.
  • Rule #3 Is the QRS during WCT “ugly”?

The “uglier” the QRS the more likely the rhythm is. VT originates from a ventricular focus outside of the conduction system. As a result VT is more likely to be wider and far less organized (therefore “uglier”) in its conduction pattern
 
The “3 simple rules” is an extract from ACLS 2013 Arrhythmias  where you can find the complete explanation and much more on arrhythmias.
Visit Ken Grauer Amazon page to find out more and discover all the amzing EKG books he wrote. They are accurate and reliable for use in many emergency situation.
I’ll include Ken’s reply in the main script of the post cause it contains some very important adjuncts and expalnations. At the end of the replay you’ll find the link to download the full text of the section regarding the WCT topic. You’ll also appreciate the perfect Ken’s italian. I’m amazed….
Molto grazie Mario per la pubblicazione del mio consiglio su le tre semplici regole per diagnosticare VT! I’ll make a few brief additions to what Mario wrote. RULE #1 – Remember that slight or even moderate axis deviation is of no help. The QRS complex must be ALL negative in either lead I or in lead aVF. If it is – then the rhythm is almost always VT. RULE #2 – Again, moderate negativity in lead V6 is common and means nothing. But if the QRS complex in lead V6 is either all negative or shows no more than a tiny r wave – then VT is likely. This is because such marked negativity in lead V6 implies that the impulse is moving away from the apex – and that almost always means VT. RULE #3 – Supraventricular rhythms with either preexisting bundle branch block or aberrant conduction typically resemble some form of conduction defect (ie, either RBBB, LBBB or RBBB with LAHB and/or LPHB). However, if the QRS complex is amorphous (ie, very “ugly” and formless) – then it is much more likely to be originating from the ventricles. Occasionally, patients may have unusual forms of IVCD – so this rule is not 100% accurate – but it is a helpful supportive point in the differential diagnosis. For those wanting more complete description of the 3 Rules (and other pointers in assessing wide tachycardias) – feel free to download these Sections from my ACLS-2013-ePub – GO TO – https://www.dropbox.com/s/8bc9h5cumo7e4vy/8.0%2C9.0%2C10.0-%20ACLS-2013-e-PUB-WCT-Criteria-%2810-13.11-2014%29-LOCK.pdf?dl=0 – Detailed description of the 3 Simple Rules begins in Section 08.17. Spero che questo vi aiuta.”
Ken Grauer
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Ectopy or aberrancy? Google Ecg+ community comments on a clinical case.

16 Dic
 75 yrs old female, confused, chest pain and hypotensive. Below ypu can see the 12 leads EKG pre and post cardioversion

TVCardioversion

EK post cardio

The question about ectopy and aberrancy, even if of minor influence on theraphy that was based on clinical presentation, was interestingly debated in ECG+ community.

Prof. Ken Grauer and other members of community gave the solution on why the above 12 leads EKG was, with good approximation, referrable to a VT and not to a SVT conducted with aberrancy.

Those are the EKG criteria they individuated:

  1. Extreme axis “northwest axis”: (neg in lead I, positive in lead aVR);
  2. Lead V1 is amorphous
  3. Lead V6 is almost all negative
  4. No diphasic RS complexes in any of the precordial leads
  5. Monophasic R-wave in lead V1(taller left “rabbit-ear”)
  6. Diphasic QR complexes in leads V2 and V3.
  7. Monophasic QS complexes in leads V4, V5, and V6.
  8. Josephson’s sign (notching on the nadir of S wave)

Those criteria, even if present in this case, are universally valid.

If you want to discover more on this topic MEDEST already posted on this topic in a previous post

There you can find alle the references on EKG criteria for differential diagnosis between ectopy and aberrancy in wide comples tachycardia.

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