Clinal Myths and Scientific Truth about heart failure/pulmonary edema management in prehospital setting.

18 Dic

Clinical Myth #1. All heart failure/cardiogenic pulmonary edema (HF/CPE) patients are fluid overladed .

Scientific Truth #1: Just a small part of heart failure/ cariogenic pulmonary edema (HF/CPE) patients are fluid overloaded. Most (>50%) patients are redistributed (from splanchnic circulation and lover limb to pulmonary circle). Use your clinical judgement (poor sensitivity and specificity) or ultrasound (lung US for the presence of ≥3 B lines in ≥2 bilateral thoracic lung zones is reliable and sensitive for pulmonary edema) to establish which kind of patient you are dealing with: Overloaded or Redistributed. That makes the difference.

Clinical Myth #2. All HF/CP patients benefit from diuretic ( Furosemide or other diuretics) therapy.

Scientific Truth #2: Just normotensive overloaded HF/CPE patients can benefit from diuretic ( Furosemide or other diuretics) therapy.

Furosemide can be detrimental on short and long term outcome because:

  • decreases LV function, increasing ventricular filling pressure 

  • increases systemic vascular resistance through activation of the renin-angiothensyn system

  • decreases glomerular filtration rate

Clinical Myth #3. Nitrates small doses continuous infusion is the right strategy in HF/CP patients.

Scientific Truth #3: Nitrates and Non Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation are effective first line interventions in hypertensive HF/CPE patients.

High doses Nitrates administration is safe. 2 mg bolus of nitrates every 3 min in hypertensive patients (with close blood pressure check) are safe and faster in achieving clinical targets and symptoms relief. 

Clinical Myth #4. Morphine is safe and effective in HF/CP patients because relief anxiety and reduce preload, and has to be part of first line interventions.

Scientific Truth #4: Morphine administration has no evidences of clinical benefit in HF/CPE patients and is not part of first line treatment for HF/CPE patients. Low quality evidence suggests that morphine is associated with worse outcomes when compared to patients not receiving opioids.

Clinical Myth #5. In hypotensive (cariogenic shock) HF/CP patients Dopamine is the first choice vasopressor.

Scientific Truth #5: Norepinephrine is the first line medication to reach target mean arterial pressure and achieve organ perfusion, rather than Dopamine. Evidence suggests that norepinephrine is associated with improved outcomes including
lower mortality and lower risk of dysrhythmia when compared with Dopamine.

Bottom Line Clinical Pearl: Use ultrasound during every step of your clinical pathway in HF/CPE patients.

  • US detection of B-lines for diagnosis in undifferentiated dyspneic patients

  • US of IVC to discriminate between fluid overloaded or redistributed patients

  • Pump/Tank/Pipes US approach for differential diagnosis in undifferentiated shock patients

 

Liberally adapted from:

Brit Long MD, Alex Koyfman, MD,  Eric J. Chin, MD. Misconceptions in acute heart failure diagnosis and Management in theEmergency Department. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2018 Sep;36(9):1666-1673. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2018.05.077. Epub 2018 Jun 1

References:

Myth #1

  • Fallick C, Sobotka PA, Dunlap ME. Sympathetically mediated changes in capacitance: redistribution of the venous reservoir as a cause of decompensation. Circ Heart Fail 2011;4:669–75.
  • Zile MR, Bennett TD, St John Sutton M, et al. Transition from chronic compensated to acute decompensated heart failure: pathophysiological insights obtained from continuous monitoring of intracardiac pressures. Circulation 2008 Sep 30;118 (14):1433–41.
  • Chaudhry SI,Wang Y, Concato J, Gill TM, Krumholz HM. Patterns of weight change preceding hospitalization for heart failure. Circulation 2007;116:1549–54
  • Viau DM, Sala-Mercado JA, Spranger MD, et al. The pathophysiology of hypertensive acute heart failure. Heart 2015;101:1861–7.
  • Jambrik Z, Monti S, Coppola V, et al. Usefulness of ultrasound lung comets as a non radiologic sign of extravascular lung water. Am J Cardiol 2004;93(10):1265–70.
  • Mallamaci F, Benedetto FA, Tripepi R, et al. Detection of pulmonary congestion by chest ultrasound in dialysis patients. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;3(6):586–94.
  • Anderson KL, Fields JM, Panebianco NL, et al. Inter-rater reliability of quantifying pleural B-lines using multiple counting methods. J Ultrasound Med 2013;32(1):115-20.

Myth #2

  • Francis GS, Siegel RM, Goldsmith SR, et al. Acute vasoconstrictor response to intravenous furosemide in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med 1985;103(1):1–6.
  • Kraus PA, Lipman J, Becker PJ. Acute preload effects of furosemide. Chest 1990;98:124–8.

Myth #3

  • Cotter G, Metzkor E, Kaluski E, et al. Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high-dose furosemide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema. Lancet 1998;351:389–93.
  • Sharon A, Shpirer I, Kaluski E, et al. High-dose intravenous isosorbide-dinitrate is safer and better than Bi-PAP ventilation combined with conventional treatment for severe pulmonary edema. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:832–7.
  • Sharon A, Shpirer I, Kaluski E, et al. High-dose intravenous isosorbide-dinitrate i safer and better than Bi-PAP ventilation combined with conventional treatment for severe pulmonary edema. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:832–7.

Myth #4

  • Sosnowski MA. Review article: lack of effect of opiates in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Emerg Med Australas 2008;20:384–90.
  • Vasko JS, Henney RP, Oldham HN. Mechanisms of action of morphine in the treatment of experimental pulmonary edema. Am J Cardiol 1966;18:876–83.
  • Kaye AD, Hoover JM, Kaye AJ, et al. Morphine, opioids, and the feline pulmonary vascular bed. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008;52:931–7.
  • Riggs TR, Yano Y, Vargish T. Morphine depression of myocardial function. Circ Shock 1986;19:31–8.
  • Miró Ò, Gil V,Martín-Sánchez  FJ, et al.Morphine use in the ED and outcomes of patients with acute heart failure: a propensity score-matching analysis based on the EAHFE registry. Chest 2017 Oct;152(4):821–32.

Myth #5

  • Rui Q, Jiang Y, Chen M, et al. Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of cardiogenic shock: a PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis. Medicine 2017;96(43):e8402.

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